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黄曲霉毒素的危害及处理方法
来源: | 作者:pro79c3ec | 发布时间: 2013-08-13 | 11275 次浏览 | 分享到:
粮油,棉籽,杏仁、榛子、干辣椒,肝、咸鱼,奶及其制品中黄曲霉毒素的危害预防。
<p style="text-indent:21.0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"> </span> </p> <div> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">黄曲霉毒素是迄今发现的污染农产品毒性最强的一类生物毒素。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">其中,毒性最强、危害最大的为黄曲霉毒素</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">B1</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">,其毒性为氰化钾的</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">10</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">倍、砒霜的</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">68</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">倍,被列入严管的特剧毒物质。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">0.294</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">毫克</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">/</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">公斤剂量的黄曲霉毒素</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">B1</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">,就能引起敏感动物的急性中毒死亡。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">黄曲霉素为分子真菌毒素,是一种剧毒物和强致癌物质,为迄今发现的各种真菌毒素中最稳定的一种。黄曲霉素为有荧光的毒素,在紫外线照射下,能发生蓝紫色、绿色的闪闪荧光。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">目前,化学结构已确定</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">B1</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">、</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">B2</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">、</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">G1</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">、</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">G2</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">等</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">10</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">多种。产生黄曲霉素主要菌种是黄曲霉和寄生曲霉,此外还有曲霉、青霉、根霉等。黄曲霉素分布范围很广,凡是受到能产生黄曲霉素霉菌污染的粮食、食品和饲料都可能存在黄曲霉素。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;<img src="http://pro79c3ec.pic1.websiteonline.cn/upload/K22q.jpg" align="right" alt="" /></span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">如被人和动物食用,就会造成黄曲霉素中毒。黄曲霉素<span>B1</span><span>和</span><span>G1</span><span>,可诱发肝癌和皮下肉瘤。黄曲霉素对动物的肝、肾、大脑和神经系统等均会引起病变。据报道,黄曲霉素含量在</span><span>1</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤可诱发癌症。</span><span>1</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤黄曲霉素含量相当于</span><span>1</span><span>吨粮食中只有</span><span>1</span><span>粒芝麻大的黄曲霉素。</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">黄曲霉毒素也是一种强致癌物。黄曲霉毒素<span>B1</span><span>的致癌能力,是二甲基硝胺的</span><span>70</span><span>倍。据在我国肝癌高发区的调查发现,肝癌的高发与吃了被黄曲霉毒素污染的粮食有关。</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">农产品黄曲霉毒素污染,成为影响食品安全,危害人们身体健康的巨型杀手!但长期以来,由于检测技术落后,制约着对农产品黄曲霉毒素污染的控制,也限制着我国农产品的出口。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">黄曲霉素具有比较稳定的化学性质,只有在<span>280</span><span>℃以上高温下才能被破坏,它对热不敏感,</span><span>100</span><span>℃</span><span>/20</span><span>小时也不能将其黄曲霉素完全去除。</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0000pt;"> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">预防黄曲霉毒素危害人类健康的主要措施是加强对食品的防霉,其次是设法去除毒素,以尽量减少随同食品摄入的黄曲霉毒素。&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">食品防霉&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">食品水分含量和环境温湿度影响霉菌生长与产毒的主要条件,&nbsp;所以粮食收获后应迅速降低水分,如晒干,烘干,并贮存在干燥低温处。&nbsp;一般粮粒含水量在<span>13</span><span>%以下,&nbsp;玉米在</span><span>12.5</span><span>%以下,花生在</span><span>8</span><span>%以下,霉菌即不易繁殖,故称之为安全水分。&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">去除毒素&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">若粮食、花生等已被黄曲霉污染并产毒,应设法将毒素破坏或去除。&nbsp;但黄曲霉毒素很耐热,在<span>280</span><span>℃时才能被破坏,故一般烹调加工&nbsp;温度难以去毒。&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">通常可采用</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">方法如下</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">①挑选霉粒法。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">因黄曲霉毒素主要集中在霉坏、破&nbsp;损、&nbsp;皱皮、变色和虫蛀等的粮粒中,如将这些粮粒去除可使含量大为降低。这&nbsp;种方法对花生仁及玉米粒去毒效果较好,&nbsp;可在家庭和小规模生产中应用。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">②碾轧加工法。&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">一般适用于受污染的大米。因毒素在大米表层含量高,碾轧加工成&nbsp;精米可减低毒素含量。&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">③植物油加碱去毒法。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">油料种子受黄曲霉毒素污染后,&nbsp;榨出的油中含毒素,&nbsp;可用碱炼法去毒。因为不溶于水的黄曲霉毒素在碱性条件&nbsp;下,可形成香豆素钠盐而溶于水,故加碱后再用水洗可将毒素去除。但要注意,&nbsp;水洗液和沉下油泥中含有大量毒素,&nbsp;须妥善处理。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">④加水搓洗法。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">在淘洗大米时,&nbsp;用手搓洗,随水倾去悬浮物,如此反复<span>5</span><span>~</span><span>6</span><span>次,煮熟后可去除大部分毒素,但维生素</span><span>B1</span><span>损失亦较多。</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">你知道我国食品中黄曲霉毒素的卫生标准吗?&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">限制各种食品中黄曲霉毒素的含量是防止毒素对人体危害的一项重要措施。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">根据我国分吕中黄曲霉毒素允许量标准(<span>GB2761---81</span><span>)的规定,各种主要食品中黄曲霉毒素</span><span>B1</span><span>允许含量如下:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">玉米、花生仁、花生油,不得超过<span>20</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤。&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">玉米及花生制品(按原料折算),不得超过<span>20</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤。&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">大米、其他食用油,不得超过<span>10</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤。&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">其他粮食、豆类、发酵食品,不得超过<span>5</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤。&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">婴儿代乳食品,不得检出。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">而世界卫生组织推荐食品、饲料中黄曲霉毒素最高允许量标准为<span>15</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤。</span><span>30-50</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤为低毒,</span><span>50-100</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤为中毒,</span><span>100-1000</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤为高毒,&nbsp;</span><span>1000</span><span>微克</span><span>/</span><span>公斤以上为极毒,其毒性为氰化钾的</span><span>10</span><span>倍,为砒霜的</span><span>68</span><span>倍。</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">黄曲霉素中毒处理方法</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">黄曲霉素主要中毒症状为恶心、呕吐、黄疸、肝区疼痛、胃肠大出血而死亡。对于这种毒素,最好的防治方法是预防粮食等食物的霉变。消除毒素的主要方法是加碱破坏毒素。结晶的黄曲霉素<span>B1</span><span>,耐强酸和紫外线照射,加热到</span><span>268-269</span><span>℃时开始分解破坏。</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">诊断要点:</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">有摄入被黄曲霉毒素污染的食物史。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">四季均可发生,但常在阴雨连绵的收获季节后多发。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">儿童更易发生黄曲霉毒素中毒。根据历史资料分析来看,使人中毒的最危险年龄为<span>1-3</span><span>岁。</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">中毒前期表现为发烧、腹痛、呕吐、食欲减退等。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">2-3<span>周后很快发生中毒性肝病表现:肝脏肿大,肝区疼痛,黄疸、脾大、腹水,下肢浮肿及肝功能异常。</span></span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">心脏扩大,肺水肿,甚至痉挛、昏迷等,多数患者在死前可有胃肠道大出血表现:</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">实验动物临床毒性研究表明,给动物喂食含黄曲霉毒素的饲料后,表现为渐进性食欲减退、口渴、便血、生长缓慢、体重减轻、皮肤出血、过度兴奋、抽搐、角弓反张等。病理解剖可见肝脏弥漫性充血、出血坏死等表现。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">急救处理:</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">立即停止摄入有黄曲霉毒素污染的食物。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">补液,利尿,保肝等支持疗法。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';">重症病人按中毒性肝炎治疗。</span><span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'宋体';"></span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:10.5000pt;font-family:'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;</span> </p> </div> <p> <br /> </p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;"></span><span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;"></span><span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;"></span><span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;"></span> </p>